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Storage, Handling, and Release of Beneficial Insects
To protect your investment in beneficial insects and to make sure that they perform the job you want them to, please read the following instructions carefully.
Temporary Storage
With the exception of beneficial nematodes, never place these organisms in the freezer or refrigerator (less than 50 degrees Fahrenheit) or allow them to sit in the direct sunlight, unless the instructions below state otherwise (often, a good place to temporarily store them is in the box in which they were shipped — though you may need to refresh the ice pack). Nematodes may safely be stored in the refrigerator (not the freezer), until you are ready to use them. See detailed instructions for nematodes under "soil pests" below.
Release
It is critical that you make timely, appropriately-sized and, as is typically required, multiple releases (if needed, ask us for help). Most of the organisms, in most situations, should be put out in the evening, the day of receipt, in order to avoid the full heat of the day and to allow the organisms the night to settle in. However, if it is more convenient, you may release most of these organisms in the very early morning hours the day after package receipt. Releases in interiorscapes and other similarly sheltered and shaded locations may be sometimes done at any time — but special attention should be made to direct sunlight coming through windows and skylights as this can disorient certain organisms capable of flight.
Note : Organisms not covered in this instruction sheet should come with their own label instructions or instruction literature. In some cases, label instructions are provided for organisms listed on this sheet. In such cases, though, the instructions on this sheet have precedence. If you have any questions call us.
Problems
Report any and all suspected problems, such as dead or less than healthy organisms, immediately. Please do not, under any circumstances, release or discard suspect organisms until you have received instructions from us. To protect any product guarantee, please follow these instructions carefully.

Aphid Controls
Caterpillar Controls
Leafminer Controls
Scale Insect Controls
Soil Pest Controls
Spider Mite Controls
Thrips Controls
Whitefly Controls
Other Biocontrols & Pollinators

APHID CONTROLS

Aphidius colemani - shipped as ready-to-emerge wasps' pupae enclosed in "aphid mummies"

Aphidius ervi - shipped as adult wasps

Aphidius matricariae - shipped as pre-fed, -mated adult wasps

Aphelinus abdominalis - shipped as adult wasps

If you've received "aphid mummies" which have not yet begun to emerge, you may store the bottle at 64-80ºF in a highly humid, shaded location until hatch begins (check twice daily). Allow up to 7 days for hatch. When the "mummies" begin to emerge, or if you've received adult parasitoids, release at sundown the same day. To release, open the container in the crop and allow the wasps to fly out on their own as you walk among the plants. You can speed up their exit by gently tapping them out. If they begin to exit too quickly or if dispersal control is not manageable (which may happen when they're warm), re-secure the cap between release points. Concentrate the bulk of them at release points on or near the most heavily infested plants or where aphids are most likely to make an appearance. For any that will not readily come out of the bottle, or if some remain non-emerged, simply tuck the bottle into the foliage of a plant, preferably one with the heaviest pest population. The "mummies" may also be sprinkled out. We recommend the removal of most yellow sticky traps prior to release.

Do not store the emerged adult wasps in the bottle for more than 18 hours. Hold at a humid 45-55ºF (fridge best).

Do not attempt to cold-store the wasps' pupae for periods exceeding 72 hours.

Aphidoletes aphidimyza - shipped as ready-to-emerge midges' pupae in moist vermiculite in an emergence tray

If the pupae shipped have not yet begun to emerge, you may temporarily store these predators at 75-95ºF (higher is faster) in a highly humid, shaded location until emergence begins (check twice daily). Allow up to 12 days for emergence. Or you may sprinkle the contents of the emergence tub directly onto the planting medium, but only if moistness or very high humidity will be maintained. When the midges have begun to emerge, or if they arrive pre-emerged, release them at sundown the same day. To release the adult midges, open the emergence tub in or near the foliage of the infested plants or canopy of trees. After the adults have left the emergence tub, reseal it and look for a second emergence the following day (four days of emergence is not uncommon). Or, if you prefer (we do), release the first emergence wave and sprinkle the remainder of the carrier directly onto the planting medium or soil. This predator should not be used with parasitic nematodes.

Do not store the emerged adult midges in the tray for more than 4 hours. Hold at a very humid 60-65ºF.

Do not cold-store the midges' pupae for more than 5 days. Hold at a moderately humid 45-50ºF (fridge best).

Chrysoperla carnea & rufilabris mixture - shipped as ready-to-hatch flies' eggs, pre-hatched flies' larvae, flies' pupae or adult flies

EGGS: If not yet hatched, hold the bag containing the lacewing eggs at 68-87ºF in slightly to moderately humid, shaded location until hatch begins (check once daily). Allow up to 7 days to hatch. To determine if hatch has begun, look for first instar larvae crawling up the sides of the bag or amongst the contents (they can be difficult to locate). Do not allow the larvae to remain in the bag for extended periods, they are very cannibalistic. If you're in doubt about whether or not they've hatched, release the contents right away. Release at sundown by sprinkling the contents of the bag directly onto the foliage of the infested plants. Beware of ants which may eat the unhatched eggs. Please note: the hatched predators may bite but inject no toxins.

Do not store the hatched flies' larvae for more than 4 hours. Hold at a slightly to moderately humid 55-65ºF.

Do not cold-store the unhatched flies' eggs for more than 4 days. If the eggs have turned from green to grey, do not cold-store. White eggs have already hatched. If cold storage is possible, hold at a slightly to moderately humid 45-50ºF (fridge best).

LARVAE: Release lacewing larvae at sundown the day of receipt. Release by peeling back the fine mesh (silk-screen) on one side, covering the hexcell units' openings.  If you encounter difficulty doing this, try moistening the unit with a damp sponge first — being careful not to drown the larvae. One by one, or row by row, tap out the pre-hatched larvae onto the infested plants' foliage, being sure to disperse them evenly among the infested crops. Or, better yet, drop directly onto the pests. Avoid placing these predators too close to one another, they are very cannibalistic. If you encounter difficulty extricating the larvae from their cells, try blowing through the units, this encourages them to move about, thus loosening their anchorage. If there are larvae you simply can not release, wedge the units in the foliage of a couple of your most heavily infested plants. Please note: these predators may bite but inject no toxins.

Do not store the flies' larvae in the hexcell units for more than 32 hours. Hold at a slightly to moderately humid 55-65ºF.

PUPAE: Release lacewing pupae at sundown the day of receipt. Release by peeling back the fine mesh (silk-screen) on both sides, covering the hexcell units' openings.  If you encounter difficulty doing this, try moistening the unit with a damp sponge first — being careful not to soak the pupae. When through, hang or suspend the unit near the foliage of your most heavily infested tree or other site. If there are several locations, use multiple units (depending on overall treatment area size) or locate the unit in a central location. Try to keep the unit in a shaded location and out of the most severe weather, if possible.

Do not store the flies' pupae in the sealed hexcell units for more than 18 hours. Hold at a slightly to moderately humid 55-65ºF.

ADULTS: Release lacewing adults at sundown the day of receipt. Release nearest to the trees or crops that need treatment. To release, simply open one or both ends of the tubes and allow them to fly out on their own accord and auto-disperse. If the lacewing adults are hesitant to fly out on their own, help them by gently blowing through the tubes. Increase the egg laying activity of adult lacewings by supplying them with an artificial diet such as Biodiet™ beneficial insect food (as a liquid) at the release site or with certain plantings (flowering, pollen producing plants).

Do not store the adult flies in the tube for more than 4 hours. Hold at a slightly to moderately humid 55-60ºF.

Hippodamia convergens - shipped as adult beetles in a cotton bag or jar with excelsior

Upon receipt of your ladybugs it is advisable to immediately put them in a refrigerator until you are ready to release them. Within an hour of release time, thoroughly water the release site, being sure to also wet the foliage of the plants. They are quite thirsty after being shipped and stored. The watering much improves the length of time they will stick around. If outdoors, a great time to release is just after or during a warm summer rain, and definitely in the evening or very early morning hours. To release these predators first extract from the bag the precise number of beetles you need to employ, based upon the area's size and the pest density. (Call if you need help making this determination and note that a quarter cup represents about 1000 adults.) It is advisable to extract the beetles slated for release in a very cold area or even in the open refrigerator to prevent the beetles from "waking up" and getting everywhere, and to put them in separate sealed container. Now, simply open the container you've chosen at the release site and knock the beetles out evenly onto the foliage of the crop requiring treatment. It is best not to release too many beetles in one spot as they will sometimes just clump together and not do anything for several days. If this happens, recapture the beetles and redistribute them. Best results will be obtained if the beetles are released often and sparsely (not more than 14 beetles per square/cubic yard under any circumstances). Other tips to increase the number of beetles which will stay on site are as follows: Release the beetles under a row cover; if using small bags or jars of beetles which will be released in their entirety, spray the beetles, while still in the bag or jar with a 50/50 mixture of flat sugared soda and water [this will temporarily glue their first pair of wings, or wing covers (elytra) together]; or certain plantings (flowering, pollen producing plants) may help.

Store the adult beetles purchased before May, until May; store the beetles purchase after June for no more than 3 months for best results. High humidity will ensure a long storage life. If using a "frost-free" refrigerator for long- or max-term storage, remove the bag(s) once a month and, in a warm 65-75ºF location, mist them down with cool water. Allow the bags to thoroughly dry before placing them back into storage. Hold at 40-45ºF (fridge best).

CATERPILLAR CONTROLS

Trichogramma minutum - shipped as ready-to-emerge wasps' pupae enclosed in pre-parasitized moth eggs fixed to cards

Trichogramma pretiosum - shipped as ready-to-emerge wasps' pupae enclosed in pre-parasitized moth eggs fixed to cards

Trichogramma brassicae - shipped as ready-to-emerge wasps' pupae enclosed in pre-parasitized moth eggs fixed to cards

Trichogrammatoidea bactrae - shipped as ready-to-emerge wasps' pupae enclosed in pre-parasitized moth eggs fixed to cards

Upon receipt, open the bag to see if emergence has begun, being careful not to touch the eggs. If it hasn't, open or expand the bag to nearly its full size, re-secure the top and hold it at 70-90ºF in a moderately humid, shaded location until emergence begins (check four times daily). Allow up to 10 days for emergence. As an option, you may wish to put the cards into position in the area to be treated prior to emergence (detailed below); this is the preferred method. If you wish to cut the card halves into smaller sections, in order to obtain more even distribution, doing so prior to emergence is ideal. To cut the cards into squares, flip the card over (egg side down) and cut with scissors along the perforation lines, do not try to tear. If emergence has begun, or after the wasps start emerging, place the cards or squares as evenly throughout the area as possible and tap the wasps remaining in the bag evenly throughout the orchard area. Do this in the evening or in the very early morning hours. To place the cards, staple them to a leaf, or wedge them in the foliage of a tree, field or other planting requiring treatment. Try to place the cards or squares in a location which will be shaded from the sun at midday, and somewhat protected from the rain. Ants may steal some of the eggs before they emerge (detected if the eggs are removed from the card completely), especially in the spring, for this reason it is sometimes best to cut them and then put them back into the bag for emergence.

Do not store the emerged adult wasps in the bag for more than 4 hours. Hold at a moderately humid 55-65ºF.

Do not cold-store the wasps' pupae for more than 10 days. Hold at a moderately humid 45-50ºF (fridge best).

Cotesia marginiventris - shipped as ready-to-emerge wasps' pupae in an emergence tray

If the pupae shipped have not yet begun to emerge, you may temporarily store these predators at 75-95ºF (higher is faster) in a moderately humid, shaded location until emergence begins (check twice daily). Allow up to 7 days for emergence. When the parasitoids have begun to emerge, or if they arrive pre-emerged, release them at sundown the same day. To release the adult wasps, open the emergence tub in or near the foliage of the infested plants. After the adults have left the emergence tub, reseal it and look for a second emergence the following day (two days of emergence is not uncommon).

Do not store the emerged adult wasps in the tray for more than 8 hours. Hold at a moderately humid 60-65ºF.

Do not store the wasps' pupae for more than 7 days. Hold at a moderately humid 75-95ºF.

LEAFMINER CONTROLS

Dacnusa siberica - shipped as adult wasps

Diglyphus isaea - shipped as adult wasps

Hold these parasitoids for release at sundown the day of receipt. Open the bottle in the crop and allow the wasps to fly out on their own as you walk among the plants. You can speed up their exit by gently tapping them out. If they begin to exit too quickly, re-secure the cap between release points. Concentrate the bulk of them at release points on or near the most heavily infested plants. For any that will not readily come out of the bottle, simply tuck it into the foliage of a plant, preferably one with a heavier pest population.

Do not store D. siberica adult wasps in the bottle for more than 8 hours. Hold at a humid 45-50ºF (fridge best).

Do not store D. isaea adult wasps in the bottle for more than 8 hours. Hold at a humid 55-60ºF.

SCALE INSECT (INCL. MEALYBUG) CONTROLS

Aphytis melinus - shipped as adult wasps

Metaphycus helvolus - shipped as adult wasps

Leptomastix dactylopii - shipped as adult wasps

Release these parasitoids at sundown the day of receipt. To release, open the jar or bottle in the crop and allow the wasps to fly out on their own as you walk among the plants. You can speed up their exit by gently tapping them out. If they begin to exit too quickly or if dispersal control is not manageable (which may happen when they're warm), re-secure the cap between release points or try removing the filter paper (if present) then re-secure the cap, then release the wasps through the lid's opening. Concentrate the bulk of them at release points on or near the most heavily infested plants. For any wasps that will not readily come out of the jar or bottle, simply tuck the perching material inside the jar (for jar releases only) into the foliage of a plant, preferably one with a heavier pest population. Use this technique for tree releases, and try to get the perching material into the canopy.

Do not store A. melinus or M. helvolus adult wasps in the jar for more than 8 hours. Do not store L. dactylopii adult wasps in the bottle for more than 4 hours. Hold at a slightly humid 55-60ºF.

Cryptolaemus montrouzieri - shipped as pre-fed adult beetles

Release these beetles at sundown the day of receipt. Mist the foliage of the plants to be treated just prior to release. To release, open the jar in the crop and gently tap out the beetles directly onto the foliage of the infested plants, or evenly throughout the crop if the infestation is widespread. If possible, release the beetles next to or on the "cottony egg masses," if present. If the beetles begin to exit too quickly or dispersal control is not manageable (which may happen when they're warm), try removing the filter paper then re-securing the cap, then release the beetles through the lid's opening. Another way to do this, when doing releases in interior trees, is to insert a long, thin pole into the lid's opening. The beetles may climb the pole directly into the canopy of the trees. Concentrate the bulk of the predators at release points on or near the most heavily infested plants. For any that will not readily come out of the jar, simply tuck the perching material inside the jar into the foliage of a plant, preferably one with a heavier pest population. Use this technique (or the previously mentioned pole method) for tree releases, and try to get the perching material into the canopy. Leave the filter paper at the release site, it is coated with Biodiet™ beneficial insect food (as a paste). Please note the following: If you wear white or lightly colored clothing during the release, some of the beetles may be attracted to you. Experimentally, to assist the beetles in locating their prey, place white 3"x5" cards close to a mealybug hot-spots. Also, experimentally, if you are using this predator against the long-tailed mealybug or other species which does not lay its eggs in cottony masses, place pea-size amounts of synthetic batting (available at craft stores) near mealybug colonies. This may facilitate and encourage egg laying. Do not substitute batting with cotton balls, they may contain pesticide residues. Supplying these beetles with certain plantings (flowering, pollen producing plants), at or near the release site, may also increase their egg laying activity.

Do not store the adult beetles in the jar for more than 18 hours. Hold at a humid 55-65ºF.

Harmonia axyridis - shipped as lab-reared beetles' larvae or lab-reared adult beetles

Rhyzobius =Lindorus lophanthae - shipped as pre-fed adult beetles

Cybocephalus nipponicus - shipped as pre-fed adult beetles

Release these beetles at sundown the day of receipt (after full dark is highly recommended for H. axyridis adults). Mist the foliage of the plants to be treated just prior to release (for releasing adults only). To release, open the jar or bottle in the crop and gently tap out the beetles — or their larvae, which come in a tray with popcorn — directly onto the foliage of the infested plants, or evenly throughout the crop if the infestation is widespread. If the adult beetles begin to exit too quickly or dispersal control is not manageable (which may happen when they're warm), try removing the filter paper then re-securing the cap or lid, then release the beetles through the cap's or lid's opening. Concentrate the bulk of them at release points on or near the most heavily infested plants. For any that will not readily come out of the jar, simply tuck the perching material inside the jar into the foliage of a plant, preferably one with a heavy pest population. Use this technique for tree releases, and try to get the perching material into the canopy. Supplying these beetles with certain plantings (flowering, pollen producing plants), at or near the release site, may increase their egg laying activity.

Do not store H. axyridis adult beetles in the bottle for more than 24 hours. Hold at a humid 45-50ºF (fridge best).

Do not store R. lophanthae adult beetles in the jar (or H. axyridis larvae in tray) for more than 12 hours. Hold at a humid 55-65ºF.

Do not store C. nipponicus adult beetles in the jar for more than 8 hours. Hold at a moderately humid 55-60ºF.

SOIL PEST CONTROLS

Heterorhabditis bacteriophora [Hb] nematodes - shipped as living, in-vivo reared J-3 immatures on a sponge

Steinernema carpocapsae [Sc] nematodes - shipped as living, in-vivo reared J-3 immatures on a sponge

Refer to products' label instructions for detailed information, or call with your questions.

Store the immature nematodes for no more than 3 months for best results. High humidity will ensure a long storage life. If using a "frost-free" refrigerator for long- or max-term storage, or if the sponge(s) or carrier begins to dry out, remove the sponge-containing bag(s) once a month and a few drops of distilled water to the sponges or spray distilled water into the bottle(s). Place items immediately back into storage. Hold at 40-45ºF (fridge best).

SPIDER MITE CONTROLS

Neoseiulus =Amblyseius fallacis - shipped as all stages of mites in corn grit or on bean leaves

Phytoseiulus persimilis - shipped as all stages of mites in vermiculite or on bean leaves

Galendromis occidentalis - shipped as all stages of mites in corn grit

Mesoseiulus longipes - shipped as all stages of mites in corn grit

Neoseiulus californicus - shipped as all stages of mites in corn grit

Release these mites at sundown the day of receipt. To release, if supplied in grit or vermiculite, gently rotate the jar to distribute the mites evenly within the carrier. Next, open the jar in the crop and gently tap them out of the jar evenly onto the foliage of the plants in the area to be treated. Concentrate the bulk of them at release points on or near the most heavily infested plants. In trees, sprinkle the vermiculite or corn grit carriers into Dixie-like cups wedged into, or distribution boxes hung from, the branches. To release, if supplied on leaves, evenly disperse the whole trifoliate leaves or leaflets evenly onto the foliage of the plants in the area to be treated. Concentrate the bulk of them at release points on or near the most heavily infested plants or where mites are expected. In trees, place the leaves or leaflets into the canopy, if possible. With either carrier, leave the jar and filter paper, bottle or leaf tub in the treatment area for 24 hours after release to ensure all mites have exited. Supplying these predators with certain plantings (flowering, pollen producing plants), at or near the release site, may increase their egg laying activity.

Do not store N. fallacis mites in the jar for more than 12 hours, or in the leaf tray for more than 18 hours. Hold at a humid 40-45ºF (fridge best).

Do not store P. persimilis mites in the bottle or jar for more than 8 hours, or in the leaf tray for more than 12 hours. Hold at a moderately humid 50-60ºF.

Do not store G. occidentalis, M. longipes or N. californicus mites jar for more than 8 hours. Hold at a moderately humid 50-60ºF.

Feltiella acarisuga - shipped as ready-to-emerge midges' pupae in an emergence tray with a bottle of oviposition stimulant

Release these midges at sundown upon receipt by hanging the tray and its contents, after opening the unit, very close to a major spider mite center and well within the foliage of the infested planting, being sure to protect the tray from sun and water. When the midges have begun to emerge, or if they arrive already emerged, shake well the bottle and spray some of the oviposition stimulant (light green liquid in spray bottle which must stay refrigerated) near the release site in close proximity to the primary outbreak. Do not spray in other areas as this will confuse the midges. The balance of the stimulant may be applied to other areas as well, but only after emergence and some establishment has taken place in the primary release center. Repeat applications of stimulant may be made to the same area but are not necessary. Do not use the stimulant if it has not been refrigerated or is over seven days old. The stimulant is not an insecticide and will not harm plants or biocontrol agents.     

Do not store the emerged adult midges in the tray for more than 4 hours. Hold at a moderately humid 55-60ºF.

Do not cold-store the midges' pupae for more than 2 days. Hold at a moderately humid 55-60ºF.

Do not store the oviposition stimulant for more than 7 days. Store at 45-55ºF (fridge best). Shake well before use.

Stethorus punctillum - shipped as adult beetles

Release these beetles at sundown the day of receipt. Mist the foliage of the plants to be treated just prior to release. To release, open the bottle in the crop and gently tap out the beetles directly onto the foliage of the infested plants, or evenly throughout the crop if the infestation is widespread. If the adult beetles begin to exit too quickly or dispersal control is not manageable (which may happen when they're warm), try removing the filter paper then re-securing the cap or lid, then release the beetles through the cap's opening. Concentrate the bulk of them at release points on or near the most heavily infested plants. For any that will not readily come out of the bottle, simply tuck the perching material inside the bottle into the foliage of a plant, preferably one with a heavy pest population. Use this technique for tree releases, and try to get the perching material into the canopy.

Do not store the adult beetles in the bottle for more than 12 hours. Hold at a moderately humid 55-65ºF.

THRIPS CONTROLS

Hypoaspis miles - shipped as all stages of mites in bulk vermiculite and peat

Release these mites at sundown within 2 weeks of arrival, the sooner the better (please note storage requirements below). Water the medium or soil at least ten minutes before releasing these mites. To release, gently rotate the shaker canister to distribute the mites evenly within the carrier. Next, open the screw top in the crop area, remove the filter paper, re-secure the screw top and gently tap them out of the shaker canister through the small holes evenly onto the slightly damp growing medium or soil or Shiitake "logs." These mites should also be released onto dirt and gravel floors, around greenhouse weeds, under benches and ground covers, and any place fungus gnat larvae and pupae or thrips' pupae and pre-pupae may develop. Concentrate the bulk of them at release points near the most heavily infested or most active breeding areas. Leave the shaker canister and filter paper in the treatment area for 24 hours after release to ensure all mites have exited, unless a small area is being treated, in which case the cap should be re-secured in order to store the balance of the mites for the next release.

Do not store the mites in the shaker canister for more than 2 weeks. Hold at a very humid 60-70ºF. It is best to store these canisters on their side (this provides more surface area for the mites within the confines of the unit).

Neoseiulus =Amblyseius cucumeris - shipped as all stages of mites in bulk, fast-release packets or in slow-release packets. All contain bran flakes

Note: You may want to avoid applying these mites directly onto orchids. Release these mites at sundown the day of receipt (if supplied in Slow Release packets, place packets right away). To release, if supplied in bulk or fast-release packet form, gently rotate the shaker canister or fast-release packet to distribute the mites evenly within the carrier. Next, open the screw top (or tear off the packet's top) in the crop, remove the filter paper, re-secure the screw top and gently tap them out of the shaker canister through the small holes evenly onto the foliage of the plants in the area to be treated. Or use a whirlybird type spreader to speed and widen the release area. Concentrate the bulk of them at release points on or near the most heavily infested plants. Leave the shaker canister and filter paper in the treatment area for 24 hours after release to ensure all mites have exited. To release, if supplied in slow-release packets, hang the packets by their supplied hooks from the branches of the plants in the treatment area. The packets are primarily used for preventive programs, however, in some cases (in the winter time in hydroponic crops where other controls are impractical) tear off the corner of the packet to expedite mite auto-distribution. Leave packets in place, in either case for no less than 8 weeks. Supplying these predators with certain plantings (flowering, pollen producing plants), at or near the release site, may increase their egg laying activity.

Do not store the mites in the bulk shaker canister or fast-release packet for more than 5 days. Hold at a slightly to moderately humid 55-65ºF. The slow-release packets are designed to be left in a typical greenhouse environment — assuming humidity is not too high — for up to 8 weeks.

Iphiseius =Amblyseius degenerans - shipped as all stages of mites in vermiculite

Release these mites at sundown the day of receipt. To release, gently rotate the bottle to distribute the mites evenly within the carrier.  Next, open the screw top in the crop area, and gently tap them out of the bottle evenly onto the foliage of the plants in the area to be treated. Concentrate the bulk of them at release points on or near the most heavily infested plants. Leave the bottle in the treatment area for 24 hours after release to ensure all mites have exited. Supplying these predators with certain plantings (flowering, pollen producing plants, or even small quantities of ground bee pollen), at or near the release site, may increase their egg laying activity. Pollen is a requirement of continued establishment if prey is absent. However, excessive pollen may impede their performance.

Do not store the mites in the bottle for more than 8 hours. Hold at a moderately humid 50-60ºF.

Orius insidiosus - shipped as true bugs' nymphs and/or adults in buckwheat hulls and vermiculite

Release these true bugs at sundown the day of receipt. To release, gently rotate the bottle to distribute the predators evenly within the carrier. Next, open the bottle in the crop area and gently tap out the predators and their carrier directly onto the foliage of the infested plants, or evenly throughout the crop if the infestation is widespread. Some will fly out on their own. If they begin to exit too quickly or dispersal control is not manageable, re-secure the cap between release points. Concentrate the bulk of them at release points on or near the most heavily infested plants. For any that will not readily come out of the bottle, simply tuck it into the foliage of a plant, preferably one with a heavy pest population. Supplying these predators with certain plantings (flowering, pollen producing plants), at or near the release site, may increase their egg laying activity. These predators may bite.

Do not store the true bug adults or nymphs in the bottle for more than 8 hours. Hold at a moderately humid 45-55ºF (fridge best).

WHITEFLY CONTROLS

Delphastus pusillus - shipped as adult beetles

Release these beetles at sundown the day of receipt. Very lightly mist the foliage of the plants to be treated just prior to release. To release, open the bottle in the crop and gently tap out the beetles directly onto the foliage of the infested plants, or evenly throughout the crop if the infestation is widespread. However, it is best to not release less than 10 beetles per release location. This will ensure proper mating; the beetles will auto-disperse. If the beetles begin to exit too quickly or dispersal control is not manageable, try removing the filter paper then re-securing the cap, then release the beetles through the lid's opening. Concentrate the bulk of them at release points on or near the most heavily infested plants. For any that will not readily come out of the jar, simply tuck the perching material inside the bottle into the foliage of a plant, preferably one with a heavy pest population. Certain plantings (flowering, pollen producing plants), at or near the release site, may increase their egg laying activity.

Do not store the adult beetles in the jar for more than 12 hours. Hold at a humid 55-65ºF.

Encarsia formosa - shipped as ready-to-emerge wasps' pupae enclosed in pre-parasitized whitefly pupae fixed to cards or loose

Release these wasps immediately the day of receipt. To release, if on cards, separate the cards at the perforations, if still connected, by cutting them with scissors. If you tear them apart, try to do it gently so as not to loosen too many of the lightly secured pupae (the black specks on the cards). Take special care not to touch the pupae, they are extremely delicate. Securely hang the cards, once separated, from the middle to upper branches of the plants in the area to be treated. Placement next to whitefly populations is advisable if the pest population is localized. If it is not, hang the cards evenly throughout the area, or next to the preferred host material of the pest if used preventively. Hang the cards in such a way that they will be sheltered from the sun's rays and from watering, mist, irrigation, etc. Leave the cards in place, undisturbed, for about 10 days to ensure thorough emergence. If supplied as loose pupae, sprinkle the vial's contents into receptacles of some sort: Dixie-like cups, distribution boxes, etc. and hang or place those receptacles as you would the cards. Another option (the preferred one) is to sprinkle the loose pupae on the leaves of your plants if this method is suitable meaning if you will not loose too many pupae. You are encouraged to use a pepper shaker for this technique.

Do not store the emerged adult wasps for more than 4 hours. Hold at a moderately humid 55-65ºF.

Do not attempt to cold-store the wasps' pupae for more than 4 days. Hold at a slightly humid 40-45ºF (fridge best).

Eretmocerus eremicus =californicus nr. - shipped as loose ready-to-emerge wasps' pupae with or without a bran flake carrier, or on cards

Release as would the loose Encarsia formosa pupae (see above). If supplied on cards, open and remove the flap covering exit hole on the reverse side on the blister-cards and follow the instructions for placing E. formosa on cards as shown above. Pay close attention to not placing the cards in direct sunlight, especially the clear blister side. However, water is less of a threat to these cards as the blister protects the soon to emerge pupae.

Do not store the emerged adults wasps for more than 4 hours. Hold at a moderately humid 55-65ºF.

Do not attempt to cold-store the wasps' pupae for more than 2 days. Hold at a slightly humid 45-50ºF (fridge best).

OTHER BIOCONTROLS & POLLINATORS

Muscidifurax raptorellus, M. zaraptor & Spalangia cameroni mixture - shipped as ready-to-emerge wasps' pupae enclosed in pre-parasitized flies' pupae within a concentrated pine shaving carrier

Sprinkle contents in problem fly areas. Apply to dry, un-trodden locations which will be not bothered for 3-5 days. For larger application areas, mixed the bag's contents with additional pine shavings or bedding in order to make controlled, evenly spread releases more possible.

Do not store the emerged adult wasps for more than 6 hours. Hold at a moderately humid 55-65ºF.

Do not attempt to cold-store the wasps' pupae for more than 4 days. Hold at a slightly humid 45-50ºF (fridge best).

Bombus impatiens - shipped as adult bees and immatures within a self-contained hive

Bombus occidentalis - shipped as adults bees and immatures within a self-contained hive

Refer to accompanying instructions or call with your questions.

Do not store the bees for more than 24 hours. Hold at a moderately humid 60-70ºF.

Osmia lignaria - shipped as dormant adult bees within breeding tubes

Refer to accompanying instructions or call with your questions.

Do not cold store the bees in their breeding tubes beyond the first week of May. Hold at a slightly to moderately humid 35-45ºF (fridge best) until bees are needed.

Anaphes iole - shipped as adult wasps

Release these parasitoids at sundown the day of receipt. To release, open the jar or bottle in the crop and allow the wasps to fly out on their own as you walk among the plants. You can speed up their exit by gently tapping them out. If they begin to exit too quickly or if dispersal control is not manageable (which may happen when they're warm), re-secure the cap between release points or try removing the filter paper (if present) then re-securing the cap, then release the wasps through the lid's opening. Concentrate the bulk of them at release points on or near the most heavily infested plants (where the majority of lygus bug eggs have been deposited). For any wasps that will not readily come out of the jar, simply leave the open jar in the foliage of a plant, preferably one with many eggs.

Do not store these adult wasps in the jar for more than 4 hours. Hold at a slightly to moderately humid 55-60ºF.

Pediobius foveolatus - shipped ready-to-emerge wasps' pupae enclosed in beetle larvae "mummies"

Store the mummies in the emergence jar provided at 70-80ºF in a moderately to highly humid, shaded location until hatch begins (check twice daily). Allow up to 7 days for emergence. When the "mummies" begin to emerge, release at sundown the same day. To release, open the emergence jar in the crop and allow the wasps to fly out on their own as you walk among the plants. You can speed up their exit by gently tapping them out. If they begin to exit too quickly or if dispersal control is not manageable (which may happen when they're warm), re-secure the cap between release points or remove the filter paper and release the parasitoids through the lid's opening. Concentrate the bulk of them at release points on or near the most heavily infested plants.

Do not store the emerged adult wasps in the jar for more than 6 hours. Hold at a moderately to highly humid 55-65ºF.

Do not cold-store the wasps' pupae in the jar for more than 7 days. Hold at a moderately to highly humid 55-65ºF.

Tenodera aridifolia sinensis - shipped as ready-to-hatch egg cases

To hatch a praying mantis egg case store it in the hatching bag that comes with the unit. Hold the hatching closed with a paper clip to facilitate easy entry to check conditions. The bag should be held at a consistent 80-95ºF in a slightly to moderately humid, shaded location until hatch begins (check twice daily). Allow up to fourteen weeks for hatch, especially if high temperatures are not consistent. Once hatched, release mantises by opening the bag and sprinkling out the nymphs onto the foliage of your plants. Maintain as much distance as possible (1 yard is good) between release points because these insects are very cannibalistic.

Do not cold store these mantid's egg cases beyond the first week of June. Hold at a moderately humid 35-45ºF (fridge best) until ready to begin hatching procedures as described above.

Release hatched mantid's nymphs immediately.

Podisus maculiventris - shipped as true bugs' nymphs

Release these true bugs at sundown the day of receipt. To release, open the tray in the crop area and gently tap out the predators directly onto the foliage of the infested plants, or evenly throughout the crop if the infestation is widespread. Some will exit on their own. If they begin to exit too quickly or dispersal control is not manageable (which may happen when they're very warm), re-secure the lid between release points. Concentrate the bulk of them at release points on or near the most heavily infested plants. For any that will not readily come out of the tray, simply tuck it into the foliage of a plant, preferably one with a heavy pest population. Supplying these predators with certain plantings (flowering, pollen producing plants), at or near the release site, may increase their egg laying activity. These predators may bite.

Do not store the true bugs' nymphs in the tray for more than 6 hours. Hold at a moderately humid 50-55ºF.

Musca domestica - shipped as ready-to-emerge flies' pupae within a concentrated pine shaving carrier

Sprinkle contents on bag evenly in the area requiring pollination. Apply to dry, un-trodden locations which will be not bothered for 3-5 days. For larger application areas, mixed the bag's contents with additional pine shavings in order to make controlled, evenly spread releases more possible.

Do not store the emerged adult flies for more than 6 hours. Hold at a moderately humid 55-65ºF.

Do not attempt to cold-store the flies' pupae for more than 4 days. Hold at a slightly humid 45-50ºF (fridge best).